Banarasi silk sarees are known for their exquisite craftsmanship and timeless elegance, making them a popular choice among women for special occasions. Originating from the city of Varanasi, these sarees are handcrafted using fine silk threads and often feature intricate designs and motifs inspired by Mughal art and architecture.
The intricate weaving process involves the use of a drawloom and punch cards to create patterns, and the addition of zari, a metallic thread, adds a luxurious and regal touch. These sarees are not only a symbol of Indian culture but also a celebration of the country’s rich history and heritage. If you’re looking for a saree that exudes grace, beauty, and sophistication, a Banarasi silk saree is an excellent choice.
The process of making a Banarasi saree involves nine steps:
- Step 1: Saree Graph Design: To create a beautiful Banarasi saree, the first step is to create a detailed design template, known as a saree graph. This graph is designed by a graphic designer and showcases each design element, including border design, buttis, and pallu, in minute detail to give proper structure and form to the final creation. The graph is a critical step in the production process, as each pattern and design must be approved before it can move on to production or weaving of the piece.
- Step 2: Cardboard/Patta Preparation: Once the saree graph is approved, the next step is to create a cardboard/patta, which is used as a stencil for the handloom machine to obtain the specific design on the fabric. Based on the graph designed, the cardboard/patta is then cut and punched holes to create the exact pattern as the graph suggests. This cardboard is then installed into the machine setup. Four different types of machines are used (40, 80, 100, 120 choks) depending on the design for the weaving process to start.
- Step 3: Silk Thread Processing: The process of preparing silk yarns for the weaving process is known as Karahi. In this step, the yarns are selected and sent out for polishing and finishing before weaving and production. At this stage, the silk yarns are made ready for a minimum of 4-6 sarees.
- Step 4: Dyeing: Once the silk yarns are ready, they are dyed as per the requirements of the design and shades required. Each shade and color is decided with precision to make every saree beautiful, vibrant, and unique.
- Step 5: Bana Preparation: Bana refers to the tools incorporated in the machinery for weaving. In this step, the bana is crafted to make it suitable for the design of the saree. The warp and weft are prepared as per the saree’s design and detailing.
- Step 6: Zari Selection: Zari is the golden, antique, and rustic thread that adds to the saree’s beauty. Zari makes the saree look heavenly by adding grace and also giving the saree a heavy look. There are three types of zaris: Sona, Roopa, and Antique Zari which are used in the weaving process. Zari is selected as per the base color of the fabric. The combination and matching are done to select which zari would look best with the colors in the fabric of the saree. Zari plays a very critical role in deciding the entire look of the saree. Usually, copper tested zari is used in most of the sarees; however, even real silver and gold zari is also used at times in Banarasi sarees to make it all the more priceless.
- Step 7: Loom Setup: Once the bana is ready and the zari is selected, the next step is to set up the handloom machine. This is a critical step, as it requires the weaver to ensure that the warp and weft are aligned correctly to create a perfect pattern.
- Step 8: Weaving: Begins After getting the approval on the sample design, the actual weaving begins on the handloom. Weaving the first piece of a new design is always a challenge for a weaver. There is the pressure of getting things correct and for the piece to come out as expected. Only a master weaver with years of experience can get such details right.
- Step 9: Optimizing for Quality and Sale: Once the weaving process is completed, the saree goes through a rigorous quality control process to ensure that it meets the brand’s high standards. Any extra or loose threads are properly trimmed, and the saree is carefully examined for consistency in design, color, and quality. After quality control, the saree is processed for finishing. Silk kadwa sarees may not require any finishing, but cutwork sarees undergo different levels of finishing, such as cutting and calendering, to enhance the overall appearance and feel of the saree.
Banarasi silk sarees are more than just a piece of clothing – they represent the rich cultural heritage of India and are a symbol of luxury, elegance, and grace. The intricate weaving techniques and intricate designs require immense skill and craftsmanship, making each saree a unique masterpiece. From the choice of high-quality silk yarns to the final finishing touches, every step in the process of creating a Banarasi silk saree is carefully executed by skilled artisans who have passed down their techniques from generation to generation.
Not only do Banarasi silk sarees hold immense cultural significance, but they are also a fashion statement that never goes out of style. From traditional weddings to modern-day events, Banarasi silk sarees have been a popular choice for women of all ages and backgrounds.
It’s no surprise that the demand for Banarasi silk sarees has increased over the years, with people from all over the world appreciating the beauty and quality of these exquisite sarees. Whether you’re looking for a timeless piece to add to your collection or a gift for someone special, a Banarasi silk saree is sure to be a cherished treasure for years to come.